Vol. 34, Nŗ 2

Anatomy of the dromedary head skeleton revisited

El Allali, K.; Achaāban, M. R.; Ouassat, M.

KEYWORDS: camel, skull osteology, foramina, vessels, nerves.

ABSTRACT: Introduction: Dromedary Camel is known for its specific adaptation to the hostile environment of desert areas. Hence, it is a very interesting model to consider for biological and veterinary sciences. A good knowledge of camel head osteology is relevant to overcome the lack of accurate data useful for comparative anatomy, radiology and clinical practice. Methods: The present work studied the osteology of the camel skull at different age and investigates blood vessels and nerves passing through its foramina. Results: The obtained data show similarities with domestic mammals but also several peculiarities. These include particularly; the existence of an extensive temporal fossa; a prominent external sagittal crest in the adults which is replaced by a large parietal planum in the youngest; the supra-orbital foramina give access only to the frontal vein and thus cannot be used for the nerve block and anesthesia of the upper eyelids; supplementary foramens including, a retroarticular, a lateral sphenopalatine, an accessory maxillary and a lacrimal fontanel were described for the first time. Unlike that reported in the literature, the lacerate foramen is covered by a fibro-cartilaginous layer; whereas the carotid foramen is located caudally to the jugular foramen. The hyoid lingual process is lacking while the epihyoideum is well developed. The mandibular symphysis is well extended reaching 13.2 ± 0.8cm. Also, the literature controversy concerning the lower jaw dental formula was discussed and elucidated: I3-C1-PM2-M3. Conclusion: This study provides a deep anatomy description of the camel skull. The presented results are important for comparative anatomy and clinical investigations.