Vol. 34, Nº 2

Exploration of the coefficients of correlation of different segmental measurements with total length of disarticulated femoral bones: a systematic review

Khanal, L.; Shah, S.; Koirala, S.

KEYWORDS: length of femur, coefficient of correlation, shaft of femur, segmental measurements

ABSTRACT: Introduction: In a forensic case with availability of femoral fragments, estimation of the total femoral length of the available segment is one of the steps used for estimating an inidividual’s stature. This estimation will be more accurate if the segment has a high coefficient of correlation with the total length of the femur. This article reviews the coefficients of correlation of different segmental measurements with femur length. Materials and Methods: Seventeen articles were selected from PubMed, Google Scholar and other public research sharing sites. Articles with coefficients of correlation of segmental measurements with the total length of the femur were included in the study. Results and Discussion: Among the 17 articles, two were related to measurement of the proximal part of the femur only, one was concerned with femoral shaft measurement only, 7 focus on the distal part only, 3 concerned both proximal and distal parts, and 4 articles included all parts of the femur. Sample sizes varied from 50 to 2388 femur bones. The value of the coefficient of correlation (‘r’) was found to vary with respect to gender and nationality. The value of ‘r’ for several width measurements of the segments had a higher correlation among females compared to male individuals. Conclusion: Though segment 1 of the proximal part, segment 3 of the shaft, and the epicondylar and bicondylar breadths of the distal part of the femur are highly correlated with the total length of femur, an investigator should also consider of gender, race, ethnicity and environmental factors when choosing the femur segment that has the highest value of ‘r’.